Category Archives: Academic Writing

Unit I &II assessment

Kindly highlight the answers in RED

Question 1

  1. What types of powers do administrative agencies have?
Legislative and judicial
Judicial and executive
Executive and legislative
Legislative, judicial, and executive

4 points

Question 2

  1. Which of the following are stakeholders of a business?
Owners and employees
Employees and customers
Customers, owners, and management
Management, owners, and employees
Customers, owners, management, and employees

4 points

Question 3

  1. The “public disclosure” test is also known as the __________ test.

4 points

Question 4

  1. Which of the following is (are) positive about arbitration?
Arbitrators are assigned so parties do not have to pick them.
Arbitration is generally less expensive than litigation.
Arbitrators are bound by the same rules as judges in applying precedent.
Arbitrators are assigned so parties do not have to pick them, and arbitration is generally less expensive than litigation.
Arbitrators are assigned so parties do not have to pick them, arbitration is generally less expensive than litigation, and arbitrators are bound by the same rules as judges in applying precedent.

4 points

Question 5

  1. Which of the following is the minimal standard that a business must meet in a consideration of business ethics?
Decisions must be legal.
Decisions must meet the criteria of a follower of the WPH framework for business ethics.
Decisions must meet the requirements of the most important stakeholders.
Decisions must receive a majority vote of acceptance by employees.
Decisions must be legal, and decisions must receive a majority vote of acceptance by employees.

4 points

Question 6

  1. Which of the following involves disputes between private individuals or groups?
Public law
Private law
Governmental law
Public law and private law, but not governmental law
Public law, private law, and governmental law

4 points

Question 7

  1. Which of the following was the result in Alexis Perez v. John Ashcroft, the case in the textbook in which the plaintiff claimed that—without formal rulemaking as required by law—the Immigration and Naturalization Service wrongfully imposed a rule that required visa applicants who work in a professional capacity in a religious vocation to have formal religious training?
The court ruled that no formal rulemaking was required because the agency was merely interpreting previously-approved regulations.
The court ruled that no formal rulemaking was required because the Immigration and Naturalization Service was exempt from the Administrative Procedures Act.
The court upheld the rule on the basis that as a potential immigrant, the plaintiff lacked standing to sue.
The court struck the rule on the basis that the Immigration and Naturalization Service lacked the authority to pass any rules whatsoever when First Amendment freedom of religion rights were at issue.
The court struck the rule on the basis that all substantive rules adopted by an agency creating law must be implemented through formal rulemaking procedures.

4 points

Question 8

  1. An administrative law judge’s decision may be directly appealed to:
a state trial court.
the full commission or head of an agency.
the circuit court of appeals.
the Senate.
administrative law judge’s decisions are final and may not be appealed.

4 points

Question 9

  1. When courts rely on precedent, they are obeying __________.
common analysis
res judicata
stare decisis
in rem process
federal law

4 points

Question 10

  1. Congress created federal administrative agencies through passage of what type of legislation?

4 points

Question 11

  1. What usually happens to decisions of administrative law judges that are appealed to the federal court system?
The decisions are usually upheld.
The decisions are usually denied.
The decisions are upheld approximately 50% of the time.
The decisions are generally upheld as a matter of law unless a jury is requested.
None of these since there is no right of appeal to the federal court system.

4 points

Question 12

  1. What do the initials ALJ represent in the administrative law arena?
Administrative Legal Journal
Agency Legal Jargon
Administrative Law Judge
Agency Legal Judge
Agency Law Jurisprudence

4 points

Question 13

  1. Which of the following is a type of alternative dispute resolution?
Case argument
Case analysis
Focus grouping

4 points

Question 14

  1. Which of the following do appellate courts primarily handle?
Questions of law
Questions of fact
Questions of law and fact
Cases when they initially enter the legal system
Questions of law and fact, and also cases when they initially enter the legal system

4 points

Question 15

  1. Which of the following is accurate regarding the speed and cost of alternative dispute resolution?
It is usually faster and cheaper.
It is usually faster but more expensive.
It is usually slower and more expensive.
It is usually slower but cheaper.
No studies have known, so the answer is unknown.

4 points

Question 16

  1. The term __________ involves the use of past decisions to guide future decisions.

4 points

Question 17

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding executive agencies at the federal level?
The president with the advice and consent of the U.S. House of Representatives appoints the administrative head of an executive agency.
The president may discharge executive-agency heads at any time, for any reason.
Executive agencies are usually under one of the cabinet-level departments.
Executive agencies are generally located within the executive branch.
Executive agencies tend to have responsibility for making rules covering a broad spectrum of industries and activities.

4 points

Question 18

  1. Which of the following are the most common types of rulemaking done by agencies?
Formal and hybrid
Informal and hybrid
Formal and informal
Judicial and informal
Legislative and formal

4 points

Question 19

  1. Positive abstractions that capture our sense of what is good or desirable are __________.
ethical ideas
conscience demands
desirable principles
action goals

4 points

Question 20

  1. Billy knows that he can bring his case against Bob in a state court in Tennessee. He is unsure, however, of which county in which to proceed. Which of the following addresses the proper county?
In personam jurisdiction
Subject-matter jurisdiction
Diversity jurisdiction
Long-arm jurisdiction

4 points

Question 21

  1. Which of the following is true regarding federal jurisdiction?
There is no exclusive federal jurisdiction in civil matters.
If a case falls within federal jurisdiction, it may not also fall within state jurisdiction.
Some cases fall within both federal jurisdiction and state jurisdiction, but there is no exclusive federal court jurisdiction.
Some cases fall within both federal jurisdiction and state jurisdiction, but that only occurs in criminal matters.
Some cases fall within both federal jurisdiction and state jurisdiction, but the federal court system has exclusive jurisdiction over some cases.

4 points

Question 22

  1. Business ethics:
results in a set of correct decisions made by a company.
refers to a standard of business conduct.
can improve business decisions.
refers to a standard of business conduct and can improve business decisions.
results in a set of correct decisions made by a company and can improve business decisions.

4 points

Question 23

  1. Patricia, the president of a company that makes batteries, has a new interest in the environment. She recently went to a seminar on environmental dangers and has decided to take steps to clean things up. She started at home and was also committed to change things at work. Patricia had to face the fact that her company has been cheating and is not in compliance with applicable environmental regulations due to dumping in a nearby river. Her company has never been cited, however, because it employs a very large number of people in the community, including the mayor’s wife and the chief-of-police’s brother. On her mission to clean things up, Patricia has decided to go even further than the law requires and install the very latest environmental protections. When she announced her plan, the chair of the company’s board of directors, Cindy, had a meeting with Patricia. Cindy told Patricia to analyze the situation carefully because the cost of the additional equipment would mean no dividend to shareholders and no raise for employees. Furthermore, Cindy told Patricia that installing all the new equipment would result in higher prices for the company’s batteries and could bankrupt the company because of foreign competition. Cindy hinted that Patricia could be fired if she persisted. Cindy suggested that Patricia just be concerned with a minimal standard of ethics. Which of the following is the minimal standard that a business must meet in a consideration of business ethics?
Decisions must meet the criteria of a follower of the WPH framework for business ethics.
Decisions must meet the requirements of the most important stakeholders.
Decisions must receive a majority vote of acceptance by employees.
Decisions must be legal.
Decisions must be legal, and decisions must receive a majority vote of acceptance by employees.

4 points

Question 24

  1. The United States Constitution and __________ establish the fundamental principles and rules by which the United States and the individual states are governed.
the administrative rules
the procedural rules
the constitution of each state
the bylaws of each state
both the procedural rules and the bylaws of each state

4 points

Question 25

  1. Which of the following is true regarding administrative agencies?
There are state administrative agencies, but there are no federal administrative agencies.
There are federal administrative agencies, but there are no state administrative agencies.
There are state and federal administrative agencies, but there are no local administrative agencies.
Administrative agencies exist only at the local county level.
Administrative agencies exist at the federal, state, and local levels.

4 points

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Principles of Economics

Chapter 1

1.   What determines whether or not a resource is scarce? Why is the concept of scarcity important to the definition of economics?

2.   Discuss the impact of rational self-interest on each of the following decisions:

a.  Whether to attend college full time or enter the workforce full time

b.  Whether to buy a new textbook or a used one

c.  Whether to attend a local college or an out-of-town college

4.   The owner of a small pizzeria is deciding whether to increase the radius of delivery area by one mile. What considerations must be taken into account if such a decision is to increase profitability?

Chapter 2

1.     Suppose you go to a restaurant and buy an expensive meal. Halfway through, despite feeling full, you decide to clean your plate. After all, you think, you paid for the meal, so you are going to eat all of it. What’s wrong with this thinking?

2.   You can either spend spring break working at home for $80 per day for five days or go to Florida for the week. If you stay home, your expenses will total about $100. If you go to Florida, the airfare, hotel, food and miscellaneous expenses will total about $700. What’s your opportunity cost of going to Florida?

4.     Provide some examples of specialized markets or retail outlets. What makes the Web so conducive to specialization?


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Law of Debtors and Creditors: PLG-305-1606

Law of Debtors and Creditors: PLG-305-1606




Bonnie and Clyde have come into some money. They buy a house in Massachusetts for $500,000 dollars, which is secured by a $400,000 mortgage. The mortgage is properly perfected and recorded. When they buy it, the broker tells them to file a written homestead declaration, but they never get around to it. They don’t divide the property evenly, and Bonnie pays for 1/5 while Clyde pays the remaining 4/5. Since they are not the “commitment types” and worry about the stability of their non-marital relationship, they buy the house as tenants in common.


Two years later, Bonnie is fed up with Clyde and she temporarily leaves. Bonnie continues to make all payments on the house, and she is out on her own for a few weeks when she calls Clyde to tell him that she had a little “accident” while “driving too fast away from a mini-mart,” and now there is a $30,000 judgment against her. She is low on cash at the moment, so the judgment creditor wants to go after the house for payment. The current mortgage is $300,000 and the current value of the house is $600,000.

Bonnie and Clyde come to you and they want to know if the judgment creditor can force them to pay and if so, how much will he get? Please research the appropriate law and address all relevant issues.

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Posted by on July 8, 2017 in Academic Writing



PSY294 – Lab Report – Memory Span – Data

PSY294 – Lab Report – Memory Span – Data
Many theories of cognition propose that there is a short-term or working memory
system that is able to hold a limited amount of information for a short period of time.
The memory span experiment is one measure of working memory capacity. In this
experiment, participants are given a list of items and asked to recall the list. The list
length is varied to see at what list length participants will make make few errors. That
list length is the memory span for that person on that task. Individuals with larger
memory spans can better keep in mind different stimuli, and this seems to give them
an advantage for a wide variety of cognitive tasks. Memory span has been linked to
performance on intelligence tests, standardised tests, reading skills, problem solving,
and a variety of other cognitive tasks.
The very existence of short-term memory is largely based on memory span types of
experiments, as it was noted that memory span was approximately seven items (plus
or minus two) for a wide variety of stimuli. This suggested a simple storage system
that held approximately seven items. Later studies demonstrated that memory span
could be systematically influenced by a variety of stimulus characteristics, including
the type of item. These findings have suggested that the capacity of short-term
memory is controlled by verbal processes. This experiment allows you to measure
your memory span for three different stimulus types.
On each trial, you saw a list of items presented one at a time in random order and
were asked to recall the items in the same order in which they were presented. If you
got a list correct, the list length increased by 1 for that type of material. If you got a list
incorrect, the list length decreased by 1.
The independent variable is the type of material you were asked to recall: digits,
letters, or words. Memory span can be measured in lots of different ways. In this lab,
the dependent variable is the length of the last list you correctly recalled.
The first list of each type of item was 3 items long. The longest list that was shown
was 10, so the maximum score possible is 10.
Independent Variable
Our Independent Variable (IV) is “Type of List” or “List Type” or “Stimulus Type”: digits,
letters, or words.
Dependent Variable
Our dependent variable (DV) is the length of the last list that was correctly recalled.
The data were not screened for outliers. Raw data is available on LMS under Lab 02.
A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted with an alpha level of 0.05.
It’s your job to interpret and present this data, in APA format, in your lab report.
If you are going to use a graph, be sure to include appropriate error bars. If you are
reporting the descriptives in text or in a table, then you can report the Standard
Deviation (SD) found in the descriptives table.
Consider the use of tables or graphs to display descriptive statistics. Continuous
variables should be displayed in a line-graph; categorical variables should be
displayed in a bar graph.

GLM Digits Letters Words
/WSFACTOR=ListType 3 Polynomial
General Linear Model
Within-Subjects Factors
Measure: Length

ListType Dependent
123 Digits

Descriptive Statistics

Mean Std.

Multivariate Testsa

ListType Pillai’s Trace
766 242.73
Type III Sum
of Squares
2.000 148.
Mean Square
Partial Eta
Wilks’ Lambda
Hotelling’s Trace
Roy’s Largest Root
ListType Sphericity Assumed
234 242.73
280 242.73
280 242.73
2.000 148.
2.000 148.
2.000 148.
Design: Intercept
Within Subjects Design: ListTy
b. Exact statistic
Error(ListType) Sphericity Assumed

Value F
df Error df Sig.
Partial Eta
Mauchly’s Test of SphericityMeasure: Length

Within Subjects Effect M
Source ListType
ListType near
(I) ListType (J) ListType
auchly’s W
Approx. C
of Squares df
491.520 1
Mean Difference (I-J)
Mean Squ
Std. Error
are F
20 450.74
95% Confidence Interval for Difference
Tests the null hypothesis
Error(ListType) Linear
1 2
that the error covariance
29.884 1
162.480 149
matrix of th
e orthonorm
84 34.04
alized transformed depe
7 .000 .
ndent variables
proportional to an identit
Design: Intercept
2 1
y matrix.
130.782 149
May be used to adju
3 1
st the degrees of freedom
for the ave
raged tests o
f significance. Correcte
d tests are displ
2 .000 .7
Lower Bound
Upper Bound

Geisser Huynh-Feldt Lower-bound
ListType .988 1.775 2 .412 .988 1.000 .500
Within Subjects Design: ListType
the Tests of Within-Subjects Effects table.
Page 1
Tests of Within-Subjects Effects
Measure: Length
Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts
Measure: Length
Type III Sum
Partial Eta
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Measure: Length
Transformed Variable: Average
Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Partial Eta
13755.876 1 13755.876 4817.459 .000 .970
425.458 149 2.855
Estimated Marginal Means
Measure: Length
Mean Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
6.627 .115 6.400 6.853
5.893 .116 5.665 6.122
4.067 .075 3.918 4.216
Page 2
Pairwise Comparisons
Measure: Length
Based on estimated marginal means
*. The mean difference is significant at the
b. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni.
Multivariate Tests
Value F
df Error df Sig.
Partial Eta
Pillai’s trace
Wilks’ lambda
Hotelling’s trace
Roy’s largest root
.766 242.737
a 2.000 148.000 .000 .766
.234 242.737
a 2.000 148.000 .000 .766
3.280 242.737
a 2.000 148.000 .000 .766
3.280 242.737
a 2.000 148.000 .000 .766
Each F tests the multivariate effect of ListType. These tests are based on the linearly independent
pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means.
a. Exact statistic
Profile Plots
ted Marginal Means
Estimated Marginal Means of Length
Style Guides
These guides tell you how to write and format a psychology lab report.
Writing for Psychology
6th Edition
Robert P. O’Shea, Wendy McKenzie
An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology
3rd Edition
Lorelle J Burton
Background Reading and Tips
One of the skills that these assignments require you to use and develop is being able
to quickly distinguish between literature that is and isn’t relevant. Don’t get swamped
reading up on many different theories, unless you have reason to think they will
provide information that is
directly relevant to our experiment. Make sure you know
how to direct your PsychInfo searches.
Refer frequently to the lab report criteria posted on LMS.
You must go beyond the textbook and what was discussed in the tutorial. Use
PsycInfo, Google Scholar, the library, etc. Do not cite internet websites that are not
peer-reviewed. That is, only use published journal articles. Do not copy from or cite
the slides.
Your hypotheses are very important. They should be a specific positive prediction
about what you expect to happen, stated in terms of the variables you are measuring
and manipulating. Predict that participants in group A will score more highly than
participants in group B on measure C.
Your hypotheses should be a logical extension of the evidence and arguments you
present in your introduction. In your introduction, you should construct a rationale for
your hypotheses. Do not just base your hypotheses on the results obtained.



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We’ve all had experiences where we have been frustrated by a decision that our supervisor made. You have probably blamed this decision on your boss being “closed-minded,” “stubborn,” or “pigheaded.” But after reading the background materials you should be able to more precisely examine and define the precise decision-making biases or pitfalls that your supervisor made.

For this assignment, think of three bad decisions that your current or past supervisors made. For each decision, explain what bias discussed in the background materials likely led to this bad decision. You must use biases specifically discussed in Bolland and Fletcher (2012); Kourdi (2003); or Hammond, Keeney, and Raiffa (2008). For each of the three decisions, include:

  1. A) A brief description of the decision and why you think it was a bad one
  2. B) What kind of bias you think lead to this decision, and why
  3. C) A reference to one of the background readings from this module

Finally, conclude your paper with a discussion about which of the three readings from the background materials would be most useful for your supervisor to read in order to help make better decisions and avoid biases. Explain why you think this reading would be more useful than the other two readings.

2–3 pages in length.




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Week 3

When owners set out to create a business they do so because they believe they can make money.   Not just money to pay the bills, but money that will support the expenses of running the business, pay the people employed by the business, and a handsome profit for themselves.  However, if a business owner is smart they understand there are many things that could happen to the business that are beyond their control.  Drought, tornedos, regulations, supply problems, are just a few examples.  The government wants to reward the entrepreneur because as discussed in week one, the economy of a country depends on people working and spending money.  The government wants to create job and has provided business owners legal methods that protects society and limits an owner’s exposure to liability that may come about because of unforeseen events, problems or other issues that can hinder a person’s desire to own a business.  The legal form of business is one of the main methods government uses to encourage business ownership.


A business owner must choose from these forms to select the legal form that best fits the purpose and size of the business as well as the amount of exposure to liability the owner is willing to take.  Fill in the chart below with the pros and cons of each legal form. Then, give examples of the type and size of company that might be best suited for the form.



Characteristic Sole Proprietorship General Partnership LLP LLC Corporation Joint Venture Franchise
Liability Exposure              
Tax Exposure              
Owners Relationship              
Purpose of Form              




Learning Activity #2: Entrepreneurship 

Complete the following entrepreneurial ability quiz, Quiz: What’s Your Entrepreneurial I.Q.?.  Pay attention to the questions asked! Then answer the questions


  • How did you fare on the quiz? 
  • What characteristics does an individual need to make a good entrepreneur (according to the quiz)? 
  • Knowing what it takes to be entrepreneur do you want to own a business?  Why or why not?
  • Research the idea of intrapreneurship.  Would you want to be an intrapreneur?  Why or why not?
  • Make sure to use the course readings to support your reasoning.
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Posted by on July 6, 2017 in Academic Writing


Week 7 Learning Activities

Week 7 Learning Activities

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Learning Activity 1:  Theme One: Technology and decision making how it makes change.

Less-expensive information and communication technologies have changed where decisions are made on the corporate ladder.Access to databases and advanced software allows lower-level employees to act with more autonomy, but the spread of e-mail and mobile phones means supervisors can be consulted with greater ease than ever before.

Using the reading explain the impact that technology has on decision making and what this means for an organization with respect to “creating a chain of command”.

Learning Activity 2:  Theme Two

Using the reading for this week read the fact pattern below and discuss the following ideas.

  • How does this fact pattern show the various levels of decision making in an organization?
  •  Identify the organizational ethical decision that created the current crisis for Sycamore Pharmaceuticals.
  • Examine and identify the current decisions that face Dominquez, Blake, and the organization. Using the appropriate decision making process for each level walk through each person and how they may decide their fate.
  • Based on the reading suggest ways that the leaders might change the culture and values of the corporation to make ethical decisions.
  • How could the leaders personally change their collective response to decision making in the future?

Sycamore Pharmaceuticals

“Did you see the report on CNN last night, claiming Sycamore manipulated scientific studies on Osteoporin?” asked Cole Dominguez, as he rushed into John Blake’s office, quickly shutting the door behind him. “I can’t believe this has leaked out. If the FDA pulls this drug from the market, we can kiss next quarter’s big bonus goodbye,” he exclaimed. Blake had seen the report and had expected Sycamore, a global pharmaceutical company, to come under fire for promoting its popular rheumatoid arthritis drug, Osteoporin, for the treatment of other diseases like Crohn’s disease and lupus—despite negative scientific studies that challenged its effectiveness. However, the aggressive marketing campaign was well underway when the unfavorable studies came in.

Sycamore’s top management chose to suppress the unflattering findings and move ahead with a systematic marketing strategy that created an illusion of Osteoporin’s effectiveness and offered financial incentives to doctors for prescribing the drug even in cases where there was no evidence it would work.

John Blake sat back in his chair and nervously ran his fingers through his hair. He exhaled deeply and looked at Dominguez, saying, “We knew we were taking a risk, Cole, aggressively marketing a drug without scientific studies to back up our claims that it worked.  The CNN report is only the beginning, my friend. You and I should expect to be called to reveal everything we know.  Ethically, Sycamore is responsible for publishing reports on its drugs, even the ones that aren’t so flattering.”

Dominguez knew his position on the situation.  He would stand by Sycamore management team and back them up, no matter what.  He needed this job and knew he had been following orders. Dominguez recalled an e-mail from the CEO in 2008 that said, “. We should avoid publishing anything that damages Osteoporin’s marketing success.  Do not report anything that is negative. Delay these reports as long as legally possible.” Dominguez wondered aloud, “Weren’t we just following orders?” Following the report on CNN, Sycamore’s communications department went on high alert and moved into crisis mode.  Press releases and the corporate blog were issuing the same message to build credibility and put out the rapidly growing fire. In part, the statement said, “Sycamore is committed to the safe distribution of Osteoporin and the communication of medically or scientifically significant results of all studies, regardless of outcome.”   Blake shuddered as he read the blog and glanced up at his frantic colleague. “You knew this was going to happen, didn’t you Cole? How long can deception like this stay under wraps? Don’t we have a responsibility to the poor man or woman popping that pill every day? They think it’s helping them. It probably isn’t. This just feels so wrong,” he said as he buried his head in his hands. Their conversation was interrupted by a knock at the door. Blake waved in the general manager, who asked if they would both meet individually with an FDA representative that afternoon to answer questions about their knowledge of the timing and content of the scientific studies on Osteoporin for the treatment of Crohn’s disease and lupus. Blake’s gut feeling was that he needed to be honest with the FDA, but he knew he would likely be fired or demoted if he didn’t support management.  He also knew that pulling Osteoporin from the market would result in severe losses for Sycamore and the loss of a significant bonus for himself.

Source: Based on Gardiner Harris, “Document Details Plan to Promote Costly Drug

The New York Times (September 2, 2009),

(accessed September 30, 2009); and Keith J. Winstein, “Suit Alleges Pfizer Spun

Unfavorable Drug Studies,” The Wall Street Journal (October 8, 2008), p. B1.


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