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the Anatomy and Physiology

31 Mar

Exam 6-10

 

Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

protection of internal organs
mineral storage
communication
blood cell formation

Bone resorption requires the activity of:

osteoblasts.
osteocytes.
osteoclasts.
chondrocytes

The only example of gomphoses in the body are the articulations between the teeth and the maxilla or mandible.

True
False

Creatine phosphate provides 30-40 seconds of energy for muscle activity.

True
False

 

Which type of synovial joint is the simplest and least mobile?

ball-and-socket joint
plane joint
saddle joint
hinge joint

Both synovial fluid and articular cartilage function in shock absorption and the lubrication of a synovial joint.

True
False

Diploë refers to spongy bone in flat bones.

True
False

A muscle cell experiencing resting membrane potential is:

propagating an action potential.
polarized.
experiencing depolarization.
more negatively charged on its exterior than in its interior.

Which muscles elevate the scapula?

pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
pectoralis minor and serratus anterior
trapezius and levator scapulae
rhomboid major and rhomboid minor

When climbing stairs, which muscles plantar flex your foot?

gluteus maximus and hamstrings
tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus
gastrocnemius and soleus
rectus femoris and sartorius

Which of the following is NOT a cranial bone?

zygomatic bone
frontal bone
parietal bone
occipital bone

The synapse of a motor neuron with a muscle fiber is known as the:

motor end plate.
neuromuscular junction.
synaptic bulb.
synaptic cleft.

Greater muscle tension results when muscle fibers are repeatedly stimulated.

True
False

Appositional growth produces:

endochondral ossification.
intramembranous ossification.
growth in width.
growth in length.

From superficial to deep, the three muscles of the lateral abdominal wall are:

transversus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique.
external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis.
rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique.
external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis.

Cardiac muscles perform peristalsis to pump blood through the heart.

True
False

What do skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue share in common?

Both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues possess intercalated discs.
Both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues are voluntary.
Both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues are striated.
Both skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues perform peristalsis.

Place the classes of vertebrae in order as they are situated in the vertebral column from superior to inferior.
1. cervical vertebrae
2. coccygeal vertebrae
3. lumbar vertebrae
4. sacral vertebrae
5. thoracic vertebrae

1, 5, 3, 2, 4
1, 3, 5, 4, 2
1, 3, 5, 2, 4
1, 5, 3, 4, 2

The process of ossification begins at a primary ossification center in both intramembranous and endochondral ossification.

True
False

Which of the following is a functional joint classification?

synovial
fibrous
cartilaginous
diarthrosis

What type of joint allows motion around only one axis?

uniaxial
multiaxial (triaxial)
nonaxial
biaxial

The function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is to store and release calcium ions.

True
False

Larry’s muscles weakened while he played tennis for hours on a hot summer afternoon. This inability to maintain intensity is defined as:

atrophy.
hypotonia.
muscle fatigue.
hypertonia.

Which of the following does NOT belong to the axial skeleton?

vertebral column
pectoral girdle
skull
thoracic cage

What best describes cartilaginous joints?

joint cavity
presence of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
free range of motion
little, if any, motion

Where does the mentalis muscle insert?

hyoid bone
angle of the mouth
skin of the chin
skin around the eyelids

Which of the following muscles does NOT adduct the thigh?

adductor magnus
gracilis
rectus femoris
pectineus

From proximal to distal, what bones form the upper limb?
1. carpals
2. humerus
3. metacarpals
4. phalanges
5. ulna and radius

5, 2, 1, 3, 4
2, 5, 1, 4, 3
2, 5, 1, 3, 4
2, 5, 4, 3, 1

Muscles with a triangular shape, such as the pectoralis major muscle in the chest, typically have a:

spiral fascicle arrangement.
unipennate fascicle arrangement.
convergent fascicle arrangement.
parallel fascicle arrangement

The type of contraction in which length of the muscle fibers do not change is called:

isometric.
isotonic eccentric.
tetany.
isotonic concentric.

In an adult, each coxal bone is made of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis bones.

True
False

 

Final Exam – Chapters 11-13

 

In what dura mater fold is the superior sagittal sinus located?

tentorium cerebri
tentorium cerebelli
falx cerebelli
falx cerebri

Olfactory receptors depolarize in response to an odorant, turning a stimulus into an electrical signal. This conversion is known as:

sensory transduction.
adaptation.
propagation.
repolarization.

Detection of stimuli is a responsibility of the ________ while perception of the stimuli is a responsibility of the ________.

upper motor neuron; lower motor neuron
CNS; PNS
PNS; CNS
second-order neuron; first-order neuron

The lumbar nerve plexuses arise from the anterior rami of L1 – L4 and innervate structures of the pelvis and lower limb.

True
False

What is cranial nerve VIII?

facial nerve
vestibulocochlear nerve
trigeminal nerve
glossopharyngeal nerve

Which of the following is NOT a function of neurons?

transmitting motor information
forming the myelin sheath
integration
carrying sensory information

What brain region is responsible for learning, memory, and personality?

diencephalon
cerebellum
brainstem
cerebrum

The majority of synapses in the nervous system are:

voltage.
chemical.
electrical.
mechanical.

The right corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord usually carry motor information from the left cerebral cortex of the brain.

True
False

Where are neuronal pools located?

within ganglia
within the CNS
within the PNS
within nerves

Name the structure that should be in the white box of this diagram.

cerebellum
globus pallidus
lower motor neurons
hypothalamus

Which of the following must occur first in a reflex arc?

delivery of motor response to effector
detection by receptor and delivery of stimulus
transmission from the primary motor cortex
integration in the central nervous system (CNS)

This neuron is __________.

a lower motor neuron
a CNS neuron
an upper motor neuron
a sensory neuron

An elevated ridge on the surface of the cerebrum is known as a:

gyrus.
sulcus.
fissure.
furrow.

Proprioceptors are located in the musculoskeletal system where they detect the movement and position of a joint or body part.

True
False

Which division detects stimuli of the general senses and special senses?

somatic sensory division
somatic motor division
visceral motor division (autonomic nervous system)
visceral sensory division

Neurotransmitters can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending upon the receptor present on the postsynaptic neuron.

True
False

During depolarization, the membrane potential becomes more positive.

True
False

What is NOT a function of the nervous system?

direct long-term functions such as growth
control effectors
sense the internal and external environments
integrate sensory information

Cognition is best described as:

the ability to comprehend and produce words.
encoding and storing learned information in our neural circuitry.
recognizing, processing, planning, and responding to stimuli.
a reversible and normal suspension of consciousness.

In contrast to the nervous system, the endocrine system accomplishes homeostasis by:

producing an immediate effect in target cells.
releasing hormones into the blood that regulate the functions of other cells.
sending action potentials that excite or inhibit target cells.
controlling the activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

 

Exam 8-13

 

Which bony feature is typically only found in babies?

mastoid process
anterior fontanelle
mandibular fossa
coronal suture

What is this type of fibrous joint?

suture
syndesmosis
symphysis
gomphosis

Which cartilage forms the meniscus?

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage
areolar cartilage

Identify the structure labeled “d”

pectoralis major
flexor carpi radialis
extensor digitorum
deltoid

Name this muscle.

latissimus dorsi
pectoralis major
trapezius
deltoid

Which lettered structure indicates the endomysium?

A
D
C
B

This bone marking is a _____.

facet
fissure
foramen
tubercle

The bony plates visible in this figure are called _____.

canaliculi
lamellae
trabeculae
osteons

Which bone is very long and very thin with a flattish end on one side and a roundish end on the other?

calcaneus
humerus
fibula
pelvic bone

When viewing a slide of skeletal muscle tissue through a microscope, which characteristic will you likely notice first?

The cells are branched.
The cells are short and oblong shaped.
The cells are long and striated.
The cells are long and branched.

What is this movement called?

flexion
circumduction
extension
abduction

This is a(n) _____ view of the _____ scapula.

This is a(n) _____ view of the _____ scapula.

posterior; left
posterior; right
anterior; left
anterior; right

 

Comprehensive Final

 

 

 

What is this organ system?

respiratory system
lymphatic system
cardiovascular system
digestive system

This bone marking is a _____.

fissure
tubercle
facet
foramen

What is this type of fibrous joint?

suture
symphysis
syndesmosis
gomphosis

The reticular layer of the dermis is labeled _____.

A
B
C
D

This is a(n) _____ view of the _____ scapula.

anterior; right
anterior; left
posterior; left
posterior; right

What does the epimysium surround?

Muscle belly
Single muscle cell
Bundle of 2-3 fascicles
Single fascicle

The step labeled 3 in the figure is __________.

motor output
integration
sensory input
receptor activation

Name this nerve.

vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
abducens nerve (VI)
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
olfactory nerve (I)

Another term for the ankle is the ________.

tarsal region
sural region
carpal region
rural region

Which cartilage forms the meniscus?

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage
areolar cartilage

How would you classify this epithelial cell?

squamous
cuboidal
stratified
columnar

The cerebellum is labeled _____.

A
B
C
D

Having examined a cheek cell under a microscope, you can confidently state:

The cells are full of distinct fibers.
The cells are dimpled and flat in their centers.
The cells are large, flat, and appear to have 4-5 sides.
The cells have long processes like axons and dendrites.

The area circled on the figure is the __________.

insertion of the biceps brachii
origin of the biceps brachii
head of the biceps brachii
ligament of the biceps brachii

This is an example of ________

ionic bond
polar covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond
hydrogen bond

When transporting a microscope:

the cord should be secured
the 100x objective lens should be closest to the stage
the condenser should be removed and stored in its compartment
use both hands to hold it by the base

 

 
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Posted by on March 31, 2018 in academic writing

 

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