Classical Logic

01 Apr


3.2.1. Write two short dialogues illustrating an example of strategic action and an example of communicative action. Each dialogue should involve two speakers and five speech acts. Conclude with a paragraph comparing the two dialogues.




3.4.1. Reconsider the examples in 3.2.2 In each case, determine some of the horizontal, contextual, and background information one would use to understand the argument. (APA FORMAT.NO WORD MIN—EXAMPLES FROM 3.2.2 BELOW)


  1. Jane Addams on War. In 1915, shortly after the beginning of World War One, Jane Addams, a social activist from Chicago and co-founder of Hull House, travelled to Europe with a group of women peace advocates. The women met with the leadership of most of the countries that declared war and also met with soldiers, medical personnel, and the mothers of soldiers. On her return from Europe, Addams gave a speech at Carnegie Hall in New York City. The following excerpt is from the conclusion of her address. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more. It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge. And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges-that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible. Well, now, think of that. “No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves. But in the end human nature must reassert itself. The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Addams, 1915, 359)
  2. St. Anselm’s Conversation (Argument) with and About God “And so, Lord, do thou, who dost give understanding to faith, give me, so far as thou knowest it to be profitable, to understand that thou art as we believe; and that thou art that which we believe. And, indeed, we believe that thou art a being than which nothing greater can be conceived. Or is there no such nature, since the fool hath said in his heart, there is no God? But, at any rate, this very fool, when he hears of this being of which I speak-a being than which nothing greater can be conceived-understands what he hears, and what he understands is in his understanding; although he does not understand it to exist. “For, it is one thing for an object to be in the understanding, and another to understand that the object exists. When a painter first conceives of what he will afterwards perform, he has it in his understanding, but he does not yet understand it to be, because he has not yet performed it. But after he has made the painting, he both has it in his understanding, and he understands that it exists, because he has made it. Hence, even the fool is convinced that something exists in the understanding, at least, than which nothing greater can be conceived. For, when he hears of this, he understands it. And whatever is understood, exists in the understanding. And assuredly that, than which nothing greater can be conceived, cannot exist in the understanding alone. 
For, suppose it exists in the understanding alone: then it can be conceived to exist in reality; which is greater. “Therefore, if that, than which nothing greater can be conceived, exists in the understanding alone, the very being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, is one, than which a greater can be conceived. But obviously this is impossible. Hence, there is no doubt that there exists a being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, and it exists both in the understanding and in reality.” (Saint Anselm, 1903)
  3. George W. Bush Justifies Use of Force on Iraq “Some citizens wonder, after 11 years of living with this problem, why do we need to confront it now. And there’s a reason. We have experienced the horror of Sept. 11. We have seen that those who hate America are willing to crash airplanes into buildings full of innocent people. Our enemies would be no less willing, in fact they would be eager, to use biological or chemical or nuclear weapons. Knowing these realities, America must not ignore the threat gathering against us. Facing clear evidence of peril, we cannot wait for the final proof, the smoking gun, that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud…. Some believe we can address this danger by simply resuming the old approach to inspections and applying diplomatic and economic pressure. Yet this is precisely what the world has tried to do since 1991…. After 11 years during which we’ve tried containment, sanctions, inspections, even selected military action, the end result is that Saddam Hussein still has chemical and biological weapons and is increasing his capabilities to make more. And he is moving ever closer to developing a nuclear weapon…. The time for denying, deceiving and delaying has come to an end. Saddam Hussein must disarm himself or, for the sake of peace, we will lead a coalition to disarm him…. There is no easy or risk-free course of action. Some have argued we should wait, and that’s an option. In my view it’s the riskiest of all options because the longer we wait, the stronger and bolder Saddam Hussein will become…. As Americans we want peace, we work and sacrifice for peace. But there can be no peace if our security depends on the will and whims of a ruthless and aggressive dictator…. Failure to act would embolden other tyrants, allow terrorists access to new weapons and new resources, and make blackmail a permanent feature of world events. The United Nations would betray the purpose of its founding and prove irrelevant to the problems of our time. And through its inaction, the United States would resign itself to a future of fear…. Later this week the United States Congress will vote on this matter. I have asked Congress to authorize the use of America’s military, if it proves necessary, to enforce U.N. Security Council demands.” (Bush, 2002)
  4. Hume: Philo and Cleanthes “[Philo states the following to Cleanthes] … For, as the supreme Being is allowed to be absolutely and entirely perfect, whatever differs most from him departs the farthest from the supreme standard of rectitude and perfection…. These, CLEANTHES, are my unfeigned sentiments on this subject; and these sentiments, you know, I have ever cherished and maintained. But in proportion to my veneration for true religion, is my abhorrence of vulgar superstitions; and I indulge a peculiar pleasure, I confess, in pushing such principles, sometimes into absurdity, sometimes into impiety. And you are 
sensible, that all bigots, notwithstanding their great aversion to the latter above the former, are commonly equally guilty of both. “My inclination, replied CLEANTHES, lies, I own, a contrary way. Religion, however corrupted, is still better than no religion at all. The doctrine of a future state is so strong and necessary a security to morals, that we never ought to abandon or neglect it. For if finite and temporary rewards and punishments have so great an effect, as we daily find: How much greater must be expected from such as are infinite and eternal? “How happens it then, said PHILO, if vulgar superstition be so salutary to society, that all history abounds so much with accounts of its pernicious consequences on public affairs? Factions, civil wars, persecutions, subversions of government, oppression, slavery; these are the dismal consequences which always attend its prevalency over the minds of men. If the religious spirit be ever mentioned in any historical narration, we are sure to meet afterwards with a detail of the miseries which attend it. And no period of time can be happier or more prosperous, than those in which it is never regarded, or heard of. “The reason of this observation, replied CLEANTHES, is obvious. The proper office of religion is to regulate the heart of men, humanize their conduct, infuse the spirit of temperance, order, and obedience; and as its operation is silent, and only enforces the motives of morality and justice, it is in danger of being overlooked, and confounded with these other motives. When it distinguishes itself, and acts as a separate principle over men, it has departed from its proper sphere, and has become only a cover to faction and ambition.” (Hume, 1779, 241-44)





Consider each of the following examples of fallacies. Decide which fallacy is committed in the example. Explain your conclusion for each. (APA FORMAT. NO WORD MIN)


  1. The mayor of a small Oregon town declared that her proposal for land use policy was the finest in the state. When asked for reasons, she explained that the chair of 
the state land use board said that it was the finest. It turned out that she was also the chair of the state land use board.
  2. The police arrested the burglar for stealing computers from residence halls on campus using a stolen key. The burglar demanded to be released on false charges since the key he used was not stolen but made from an impression of the locks.
  3. When faced with the prospect of intervening in another nation’s troubles, we can either take forceful action or do nothing. If we do nothing, the troubles could spread. So we must take forceful action.
  4. In a recent philosophy course a student argued that substance must be understood as one and not many. The reason for this, he explained, was that anything that was many could not be one.
  5. The salmon runs will come back naturally over time. I tagged several fish three years ago and one returned this spring. Since one salmon survived, we can be confident that the salmon run will survive.
  6. Ella listened to the presentation by the real estate developer. When it was her turn to speak, she said that she had known the developer for many years. His mother brought dinner to her family once when Ella’s father was ill. She said that the real estate agent was a veteran. Finally, Ella concluded that the developer’s proposal to build new affordable housing on the site of an old elementary school should be approved.
  7. The reason I haven’t called or returned your calls is because I thought we were no longer together. Your sister told me that you were sick of this relationship and that you wanted to break-up or at least take some time apart. So for my part, I was only doing what you wanted.
  8. The press secretary announced that it was likely that Uzbekistan had nuclear weapons capability. A reporter asked for a reason for his claim. The press secretary explained that he had been up for over 24 hours and was exhausted and upset about the situation. A second reporter asked again for a reason. The press secretary shook his head and said that if we failed to understand the risk now, we could all be destroyed.
  9. If you support the conservative cause you need to vote for the Republican candidate in the next presidential election. It is true that the Republican candidates will be far from being ideal conservatives, but they will be more conservative than the Democratic candidates and therefore they will be all we have to choose from.
  10. Going ahead on the new reality show is a moral issue. Even if it displays graphic violence that may offend many people, we must go forward because we have a moral obligation to our shareholders to turn a profit. Our ratings are terrible and this show will change all that. We are morally obligated to air the program.
  11. Regardless of how much higher the ratings are when we air the new show as opposed to when we don’t, shamelessly displaying scantly dressed women for no real reason is disrespectful and offensive to our fans. We need to think about our fans first because they are the ones whose viewership supports this station and if they start tuning out we’ll be out of business very soon.


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