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Foundations of Business Analysis
1. Maximum word length: 3000 words (excluding references, tables and figures).
2. Submit a soft copy in Word format via Turnitin.
3. Assignments submitted by other means (e.g. email) or forms (scanned copy, Excel document)
will attract no marks.
The mark for an assessment item submitted after the designated time on the due date, without an
approved extension of time, will be reduced by 10% of the possible maximum mark for that
assessment item for each day or part day that the assessment item is late.
Note: this applies equally to week and weekend days.
Case Study – Visa Inc.
Visa Inc. operates the world’s largest retail electronic payments network and is one of the
most recognised global financial services brands. It facilitates global commerce through the
transfer of value and information among financial institutions, merchants, consumers,
businesses and government entities.
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To address online fraud, Visa requires information on the effectiveness of its online security system
via customer experiences with fraudulent behaviours in order to maintain and/or improve Visa’s
The research team, which you are part of, has collected data to assess the effectiveness of Visa Inc.
online security system. Data on customer experience regarding personal fraud is also collected. A
simple random sample of 2000 customers was selected. Of the 2000 customers to whom surveys were
sent, 420 responded. The survey used to collect data is provided below and the survey responses have
been collated in the dataset named Visa_Inc.xlsx file available under the Assessment folder in UoN
Blackboard. You are required to write a report after performing analysis on the data collected from
the customers of Visa Inc.
A member of the research team has suggested that a series of hypothesis tests should be conducted
to examine the following:
1. Is the number of card fraud experience the same across gender?
2. Are there differences across the age groups regarding card fraud?
3. What is the average time lost in resolving a card fraud? If Visa Inc. has set a time-period
which is acceptable at 12 hours, will this be a significant improvement to the response time
compared to what customers have experienced before?
4. How often does an online or offline card fraud occur? Visa Inc. is willing to invest in an
updated online security which will decrease the number of online card fraud only if online
transactions are more vulnerable to fraud compared to offline transactions. What is your
5. Do any of the customers’ satisfaction scores of ‘response time’, ‘the level of advice’, and ‘the
level of communication’ influence the overall satisfaction with the credit card fraud
Write a data analysis report that provides the results to each of the five hypothesis tests above and
make overall recommendations to Visa Inc. that management can use for future business decisionmaking. Based on your analysis relating to these hypotheses, your report should focus on two key
issues: the current experience of personal fraud and the strategy or strategies that would be most
effective to increase customer satisfaction.
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Customer Experience Survey
Section 1: Experienced Card Fraud
Question 1 –Whether experienced credit, debit or EFTPOS card fraud in last 12 months
1. Experienced credit, debit or EFTPOS card fraud in last 12 months
2. Did not experience credit, debit or EFTPOS card fraud in last 12 months
Question 2 – Number of times experienced offline card fraud in last 12 months
9999. Not applicable
Question 3 – Number of times experienced online card fraud in last 12 months
9999. Not applicable
Section 2: Card Fraud Resolution Experience
Please answer this section only if you have experienced a credit card fraud and have attempted to
resolve the fraud with the credit card service provider.
Question 4 – Amount of time lost in resolving the most recent incident of credit card fraud
Please Circle the number that corresponds with your level of agreement with statements below.
Strongly Disagree = 1 and Strongly Agree = 10
Question 5 – Overall, I am satisfied with my experience with the card fraud resolution team.
Question 6 – I am satisfied with the response time of the card fraud resolution team.
Question 7 – I am satisfied with the level of advice the card fraud resolution team provided me on
methods to prevent online card fraud in the future.
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Question 8 – I am satisfied with the level of communication with staff and management at the card
fraud resolution team.
Section 3: Personal information
Please complete the following information about yourself.
Question 9 – What is your gender?
Question 10 – Please check the box that indicates your age group.
25 years and below (Age Group 1)
26-35 years (Age Group 2)
36-45years (Age Group 3)
46-55 years (Age Group 4)
56 and over (Age Group 5)
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Please follow the following sequence in the report structure:
Statistical Technique and Justification
Results, and Statistical and non-statistical interpretation
Analysis and Summary of the statistical results
This section should provide a brief overview of the data analysis report. You should discuss the subject
matter, the method of analysis, the findings and recommendations and any limitations of the report.
It is suggested that the Executive Summary should be the last section that you write.
Provide a brief background to the case to put your analysis in context. Provide a discussion of the
objectives of your analysis.
Discuss the data collection process and the sampling procedures that were applied. In this section,
you should also outline the ethical considerations that would have been taken into account when
collecting data from this survey and reporting your results. This section should include references.
You need to develop hypothesis linked to each question on page 2. You should mention the question
first and then write corresponding null and alternate hypotheses.
Question: How much are potential patrons willing to pay for the entrées? Is the $18 amount from
the forecasting model the correct value to use when setting food prices?
Null hypothesis (H0): The average amount patrons are willing to spend on the entrée course is equal
Alternate hypothesis (HA): The average amount patrons are willing to spend on the entrée course is
not equal to $18.
Statistical Technique and Justification
You should categorically mention which statistical technique is used to test a particular hypothesis.
Sufficient justification should be provided for choosing a statistical technique. You should mention
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whether you are comparing the means or measuring the degree of relationship between/among the
relevant variables. Use credible academic references.
To test hypothesis one, one-sample t-test is used as this is the appropriate test to compare the
difference between mean of one variable and a pre-determined mean (Zikmund, Babin, Carr, &
Griffin, 2012, p. 520).
Results, and Statistical and non-statistical Interpretation
In this section, you should present your empirical result and then provide statistical and non-statistical
interpretation of the result.
|Table 1: One-sample t-test for difference in patron expenditure|
|Variable 1||Variable 2|
|t Critical one-tail||1.649361|
|t Critical two-tail||1.966986|
From Table 1, it is evident that t-calculated (4.119) is greater than t-critical (1.967) and p-value is less
than the significance level (5% level of significance), thus, we can reject that null hypothesis that the
average patron is willing to pay $18 for their entrée (p-value 0.0000477) at 5% level of significance.
The average expenditure ($20.14) is greater than $18 (value obtained from forecasting model).
Therefore, the average expenditure value should be used when pricing foods in the restaurant.
Analysis and Summary of the Statistical Results
Synthesise the hypothesis test results as they relate to the two key research questions: the current
degree of customer satisfaction and the strategy or strategies that would be most effective to
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increase customer satisfaction. Report a summary of your key findings and the conclusions that can
be derived from this analysis.
Provide recommendations to Visa Inc. Each recommendation should be linked to one of your key
findings presented in the previous section. Bullet points can be used for the recommendations.
American Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition of referencing style should be followed. You can
find helpful examples of APA 6th ed. citation in pp 27–41 of the 2015 NBS Postgraduate Student
Manual as well as at http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx.
Zikmund, W., Babin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2012). Business research methods (9th ed.): Cengage