Discuss why microfinance programs have been credited with empowering millions of poor women worldwide. Then, for the second part of the question, develop a gender analysis of why they have been critiqued. With examples, discuss how social institutions (household, community, state, market) and development discourse (by NGOs, corporations, states, international agencies) effect the relationships between microfinance and poverty. What are some strategies to change financial exclusion to address structural inequalities in gender, ethnicity, race and class over the long term? (Kabeer on Empowerment, Visvanathan & Yoder, Radhakrishnan, Mc Michael) (50 points)
Define “masculinity” and “patriarchal dividend”. Discuss the most likely strategies to change the patriarchal dividend with at least two specific examples (Connell, Lifelineshttp://www.lifelinesfilm.com/ (Links to an external site.) , Tough Guise http://washington.kanopystreaming.com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/video/tough-guise-2-violence-manhood-and-american-culture (Links to an external site.) and A Way to Justice-MenEngage in Africa http://vimeo.com/47062526 (Links to an external site.)) (20 points)The model of development which relies on globalization to integrate every part of the world more deeply into markets with the aim of higher economic growth is now in crisis, according to McMichael (Chapter 10).
Discuss why and how the rise of anti-globalization politics in the U.S and elsewhere could be understood as one response to this crisis. In the second part of your answer, discuss alternative word views, broadly conceived as “pluriverses.” How do they rethink development? What are the implications of pluriverses for rethinking gender identities, expressions and gender inequality? (30 points)