Study Guide for Exam 4

10 Dec

Study Guide for Exam 4

  1. What does it mean to say that ‘averaged’ and ‘symmetrical’ faces are attractive? Why do people tend to find them attractive?
  2. How does evolutionary theory relate to attractiveness?
  3. What is social exchange theory? What is a comparison level? What is a comparison level for alternatives? How do these concepts relate to satisfaction and commitment in a relationship?

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  4. What is a stereotype?
  5. What are some examples of positive stereotypes?
  6. What is a problem with stereotypes? What does it mean to say that stereotypes are heuristics?
  7. Why do stereotypes form? What is social categorization? What are ingroups and outgroups?
  8. What is the ingroup bias? What is the outgroup homogeneity effect? Why does the outgroup homogeneity effect exist?
  9. How do stereotypes distort our perceptions?
  10. What are illusory correlations and how do they relate to the maintenance of stereotypes? Why do we only tend to remember when minorities perform “bad” behavior?
  11. What is subtyping?
  12. How does the confirmation bias and self-fulfilling prophecies maintain stereotypes?
  13. What is stereotype threat? Could stereotype threat occur for stereotypes that are completely false? How?
  14. What is the two-step process of stereotyping? How do the two steps differ from one another in terms of our ability to control the process?
  15. If activation of a stereotype is automatic, how can we reduce people’s reliance on stereotypes?
  16. How can we increase deliberative processing?
  17. What is prejudism? What is modern racism? If modern racism is so subtle, how can we detect it experimentally?
  18. What did the Robbers Cave study demonstrate?
  19. What are superordinate goals?
  20. How does Realistic Conflict Theory explain prejudice? How does Social Identity Theory explain prejudice?
  21. What are minimal group paradigms?
  22. What is Belief in a Just World? How does it relate to prejudice?
  23. What are the 4 key components to a social psychologist’s definition of “aggression?” Make sure you know what does and what does not qualify as aggression.
  24. What is the difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression? Between physical and relational aggression?
  25. What are some theories that claim that aggressive behavior is biological? What are some theories that claim that aggressive behavior is learned?
  26. What is Freud’s death instinct?
  27. How might aggression have helped us to survive?
  28. How does evolutionary theory explain differences in physical aggression between men and women?
  29. What are ‘cultures of honor?’ How do they relate to aggression? How have studies examined this?
  30. If punishment generally decreases aggression, how is it possible that spanking a child often leads that child to become more aggressive?
  31. What was the purpose of the ‘bobo doll’ study? What methods were used in this study?
  32. What is social learning theory?
  33. How is the concept of misattribution of arousal related to aggression?
  34. How might heat increase aggression?
  35. What are three ways that alcohol might increase aggression?
  36. The frustration-aggression hypothesis makes two main claims. What are they? Have these claims been found to be correct or incorrect?
  37. What is displacement? How is it related to the concept of catharsis?
  38. What has research found concerning the effects of cathartic acts? Why might it be that catharsis does not reduce aggressive tendencies?
  39. Different types of studies have examined the effects of violent media on aggressive behavior. What are the three main types of studies that have been used to examine this relationship?
  40. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of these types of studies?
  41. What does it mean when it is said that a correlation between aggressive media and aggressive behavior still exists after controlling for extraneous variables?
  42. Do results from all three types of studies tend to be consistent?
  43. How might violent TV increase aggression? (4 explanations)
  44. What are some criticisms of research examining the effects of violent media on aggression? Are these criticisms valid or not? Why or why not?
  45. What is the effect of pornography on aggression?
  46. Why is it important to differentiate between nonviolent and violent pornography?
  47. What was the purpose of the Stanford prison experiment?
  48. How was the Stanford prison experiment conducted?
  49. What were the results of this study?
  50. What is the difference between social exchange theory and the empathy-altruism hypothesis? How do supporters of the empathy-altruism hypothesis incorporate social exchange theory into their model of helping behavior?
  51. According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, what are the motives of people who help others?
  52. How has the empathy-altruism hypothesis been tested?
  53. What is the relationship between helping behavior and the number of bystanders?
  54. What is the bystander effect?
  55. What are the 5 steps to helping? What is the obstacle associated with each step?
  56. Make sure you understand and can define the following terms: pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility, audience inhibition.
  57. Why is the “Good Samaritan” study so ironic?
  58. How does happiness affect helping behavior? How does guilt affect helping behavior?
  59. How do attractiveness and similarity affect helping behavior?
  60. Under what circumstances are we less likely to help our friends than strangers?
  61. How can we increase helping?
  62. How does the presence of others affect our performance?
  63. In the early days of psychology, there were conflicting findings concerning the effects of others on performance. What were these conflicting findings? How were they eventually resolved? (Hint: there were 3 steps)
  64. What is a dominant response?
  65. How does the difficulty of the task factor into social facilitation theory?
  66. What three theories explain why the presence of others increases arousal? Be able to explain each of these theories.
  67. What is social loafing? When will it tend to occur? How is it affected by group size?
  68. How does social loafing relate to brainstorming?
  69. How do social facilitation theory and social loafing theory fit together? (In other words, what factor determines whether the presence of others will result in social facilitation or social loafing?)
  70. Be familiar with the flowcharts from this section.


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Posted by on December 10, 2016 in academic writing


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